VIETNAM HISTORY

BIRTH

It was once immortal which is linked with a dragon. From their union was born the first dynasty Vietnamese, that of 18 th kings Hung (700 - 257 B.C) and of the kingdom of Van Lang, in the north of current Vietnam. It is the time of the civilization of Dong , corresponding to the age of very advanced bronze.

CHINESE DOMINATION

In 111 B.C , China annexes all the north of current the Vietnam whom it dominates during more than thousand years. The Chinese baptize the Annam country into 679 (pacified south). In the south, the Hindou kingdom of Champa develops thanks to intense trade with India.

INDEPENDENCE

In 938, Ngo Quyen overtook the imperial army. Thirty years later, China recognizes the independence of the new kingdom, baptized Dai Viet in exchange of a triennial tribute, materializing its suzerainty. Several dynasties follow one another:

  939 - 967 NGO

  968 - 980 DINH

  980 - 1009 THE FORMER ONES

1009 - 1225 LY

1225 - 1400 TRAN

1400 - 1407 HO

The company remains impregnated of doctrines confucéenne, even if Buddhism is spread. Dai Viet increases his territory towards the south, at the expense of Champa, in prey with a long conflict (1145 - 1220) with the Khmer kingdom of Angkor.

RETURN OF the CHINESE

In 1413, the Chinese invaded the vietnam. Follows a brutal domination against which a movement of resistance rises carried out Le Loi. This one releases the delta of the Red River in 1426. In 1428, it melts the dynasty of Le posterior, which will règnera until 1788. One period of peace opens, marked by efforts for the agriculture and a “vietnamisation” of the company in the fields legal, religious and cultural.

INTERNAL QUARRELS

From 1524, the reality of the capacity escapes Le. Vietnam tears between the Trinh lords, who control north, and Nguyen, dominating the south. Those, installed in Huê, profit from the support of the Portuguese, the first Europeans to install a counter (Hoi An). Nguyen absorb old Champa definitively and extend their domination to all the Mekong delta and Kampuchea.

REVOLT AND REUNIFICATION

Driven out by a revolt and refugee in Bangkok near the French Jesuits, prince Nguyen Anh, returned in the luggage heavily armed with the father Pigneau de Béhaine, and Vietnam unifies reconquers. In 1802, it proclaims emperor under the name of Long Gia. Huê becomes the new capital of the country. Its successors adopt an isolationist policy and anti-catholic. The country takes the name of Vietnam.

ARRIVAL OF the FRENCH

French takes pretext of persecutions anti-catholics to bombard Danang (1847) and to seize Saigon (1859). Cochinchine is created. In 1882, France seizes Hanoi. In 1883, the imperial city of Huê is taken, and France imposes a treaty of protectorate on the emperor. From 1887, France builds the Indochinese Union, which joins together a colony, Cochinchine, and four protectorates: Kampuchea, Laos, Annam and Tonkin. Vietnamese will not have of cease to resist the occupation, which they are legitimists (several revolts were fomented within the imperial palate, and two emperors exiled with the Meeting), or Communists as of the years 1930.

SECOND WORLD WAR

The mode of Vichy authorizes the Japanese to install garrisons in Vietnam. In 1941, Hô Chi Minh melts the Minh Vietnamese soldier, independence movement of communist inspiration. Helped by the Americans since 1943, it ends up controlling most of the north of the country in 1945.

WAR Of INDO-CHINA

In November 1945, the French Army bombards Haiphong (6000 dead). Hanoi is raised: It is the beginning of a long conflict between the colonial power and the Minh Vietnamese soldier. The French defeat with Diên Biên Phu (May 7, 1954) mark end of the engagements. The agreements of Geneva ratify the partition between the democratic republic of Vietnam (RDV) in the north of the 17th parallel, and South-Vietnam, controlled by the catholic Ngo Dinh Diem.

WAR OF VIETNAM

On October 26, 1955, Diem denounces the agreements of Geneva, which envisaged elections. Its tyrannical mode causes a sharp opposition: on December 19, 1960 is born the Cong Vietnamese soldier. Supported by the RDV, it takes actions of guerrilla and takes the control of the campaigns. On February 7, 1955, the United States takes pretext of the attack of a ship by the RDV to bombard North-Vietnam and to unload their troops in the south. The offensive of the Small fireclay cup, on January 31, 1968, is completed in military rout for the Cong Vietnamese soldier. But it marks a turning: shocked by the extent of the American response (165 000 civil killed in the three weeks which followed, according to American sources'), the Western public opinion protests more and more massively against the war. On January 27, 1973, an agreement of cease-fire envisages the withdrawal of the American army. In January 1975, the RDV launches an offensive on the south; on April 30, Saigon falls.

POST-WAR PERIOD

Reunified in July 1976, the country is ruined. The socialization of the economy, the political purgings, the difficult living conditions push many Vietnamese to the exile: it is the tragedy of the boat people. The situation worsens because of a war with Kampuchea, supported by China.

OPENING

Since 1986, the mode pursues policy of an economic and political opening (called “DOI MOI “which one can translate by “renewal”). The relations with China are pacified. In 1995, the diplomatic relations were restored with the United States.


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